In my model results, the following issues have arisen:

Why is the image not smooth enough, with noticeable fluctuations around the fifth epoch?

Why is there such a significant variation in the image concerning ‘p1c,’ reaching 6000?

Why is there an impact on r2, but it doesn’t start changing from 1?

I hope that the teachers can provide me with some guidance on whether these issues are related to the model itself or the parameters. result1.mod (5.5 KB)

I can only give you the generic advice: simplify your model and see where the problem comes from. Most often, such pictures result from complex internal propagation mechanisms at work, usually transmitted by forward-looking equations like the Euler equation.